Friday, September 26, 2008

Bread of Divine Presence: 12 Challah Loaves for Shabbat

We continue our overview of Hasidic mystical food customs. The number twelve has been a potent figure in Judaism since Biblical times. There were, of course, the twelve tribes of Israel (thirteen, in fact, but we kept it twelve symbolically by defining two - Ephraim and Menassah - as "half-tribes." The very need to force the tribes into a procrustean 12 is indicative of its importance).

It was also the custom to have 12 loaves of lechem ha-panim, "bread of display," "bread of presence," or in that quaint King James idiom, "shew bread" (Leviticus 24:5-9). These were displayed for a week in the sanctuary on a gold table and then given to the priests to eat (yum - B.T. Gittin 60a).

With the end of the Temple service, as part of transforming the Jewish home a mikdash me'at, a small altar, Jews would have bread for Shabbat and festivals on their tables, usually two loaves of challah (bread with a token dedicatory offering removed from the dough before cooking), signifying something different, the lechem mishnah (the two portions of manna) received by the Israelites for Shabbat (Ex. 16:22).

But hang out at a Hasidic shabbat, and you will often see not two, but twelve loaves (Mishmeret Shalom 28e). That's a lot of challah. The custom is drawn not directly from the Bible, but from the pre-Hasidic teachings of Isaac Luria, who insisted 12 should be obligatory. He noted that the in the Zoharic phrase, "This is the table that is before God," the word zeh ("this") equals 12 in gematria - rendering it "12 is the table that is before God" (Pinchas p. 245). Twelve loaves ensured that God would be present at that gathering. These needed to be arrayed 6 on one side of the table, six on the other, just as the lechem panim were.

The Hasidic work Sha'arei Teshuvah proposes a different arrangement: four stacked double-decker on the right, left, and center (274a). Some Hasidim don't actually serve 12 loaves, but will bake large challot made of twelves parts (either braids or just twelve different dough samples) known as yudbeisnik.

Zal G'mor: To learn more, consult the Encyclopedia of Jewish Myth, Magic, and Mysticism - http://www.amazon.com/Encyclopedia-Jewish-Myth-Magic-Mysticism/dp/0738709050

Monday, September 01, 2008

Seudah Shelishit: The Mystical Third Meal

Jewish food spirituality is three-fold. It is grounded in beracha/"blessing", Kashrut/"fitness" and Seudah/"[celebratory] meal." The essence of these things, expressed in manifold and varied ways by different Jewish groups is: Gratitude for the blessing of food, thinking about the kinds of foods we eat and under what conditions, and using food as a medium by which we celebrate life. For several entries now we have been looking at the particular forms of food spirituality found in the Hasidic world. Here's anothere example.
Hasids do a lot of partying at the end of Shabbat. Before Melaveh Malkah, before Havdalah, there comes Seudah Shelishit. Like many other Hasidic customs, this has ample precedent in earlier Jewish practice.

The obligation to eat three meals over the course of Shabbat is derived from the TaNaKH and elaborated upon in later Jewish law (B.T. Shabbat 117b; S.A. Orah Chayyim 291). Eating three meals, we are told, shields the practitioner from the travails of the Messiah's coming, the messianic wars, and punishment in Gehenna (Shabbat 118a).

Customarily a light meal of bread, salad, and fish are eaten and psalms and piyyut are sung (Ps. 23, for example, and Yedid Nefesh). The classical Kabbalah (Zohar, III:88a) develops mystical rationale for this custom (see my earlier discussion of the significance of bread and fish), and turned this previously personal obligation into a public event where esoteric teachings are to be revealed:

Those who penetrate the secrets of the divine are permitted at this meal to reveal the secrets of the Torah to those who are God-fearing and those who delve into His name, withour fear...

(Hemdat Yammim, I, p. 125, as translated by Aaron Wertham)

Hasidism expands this further:

This meal corresponds to Jacob [the most perfect of the three patriarchs]....this meal contains the essence of the spiritual purpose [to mend the cosmos] (Mishmeret Shalom 29:2)

and also views seudah shelishit as the time to say farewell to the "extra-soul" of Shabbat (Keter Shem Tov 2:21). It is a foretaste of death (the "dying" of Shabbat), so it also a time of profound proximity to God.[1]

Zal G'mor: To learn more, consult the Encyclopedia of Jewish Myth, Magic, and Mysticism - http://www.amazon.com/Encyclopedia-Jewish-Myth-Magic-Mysticism/dp/0738709050

1. Rabinowicz, The Encyclopedia of Hasidism, p. 439.